McIlveen, P., & Creed, A. (2017, October, 5-7). Metaphor imprisons dialogical self: The delimitations of being and becoming in a discursively bound world. Paper presented at the Decent Work, Equity, and Inclusion: Passwords for the Present and the Future, University of Padova, Italy.
Personal identity is constructed in and through discourses—past and present—such that discourse is the substance of identity and the relational process by which identity comes into being. In this way, identity is formed of talk, text, gesture, and symbol, through everyday interactions with others, such as conversations. Thus, identity cannot exist outside the boundaries of discourse. Social constructionist researchers must therefore apprehend the grammar of language in order to understand how identity is formed and functions within discourse. Metaphor is ubiquitous in everyday language and, arguably, it is intrinsic to meaningful talk, text, gesture, and symbol. Vocational psychology is yet to grasp the centrality of metaphor to the construction of identity in the context of career. This presentation overviews concepts and methods that furnish an operational definition of metaphor and its effects on identity construction and co-construction in and through discourse.
Creed, A. (2017, October, 5-7). Metaphor analysis as a springboard to understanding: How do students and recent graduates envision education, career, and working life? Paper presented at the Decent Work, Equity, and Inclusion: Passwords for the Present and the Future, University of Padova, Italy.
There has been extensive research and discussion of employability in higher education (see Artess, Mellors-Bourne, & Hooley, 2017). However, there is limited understanding of how students and recent entrants to the labour market envision employability (Williams et al., 2015). Online promotional videos of Australian and Norwegian universities are used in this presentation to illustrate how an analysis of metaphoric language offers a means to explore student and graduate narratives concerning education, career, and working life. In doing so, the investigation builds on the endeavours of Inkson (2004), Mignot (2000), Savickas (2011), and Super (1957, 1980) and facilitates a cross-cultural comparison between different contexts and languages to inform the broader construct of employability.
Creed, A. & Nacey, S. (2017, May, 17-19). Career and working life: An investigation of metaphor usage in online promotional videos of Australian and Norwegian universities. Paper presented at the International Association for Researching and Applying Metaphor (RaAM): Ecological Cognition and Metaphor. University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
Analysis of metaphoric language offers a means to explore self and identity as well as a framework for theorising career and working life; such analysis is currently emerging within the field of vocational psychology for the study of career, work, and organisational dynamics. Indeed, metaphoric themes are recognised as fundamental to understanding the notion career (Inkson, 2004; Mignot, 2000; Super, 1957, 1980), meaningfulness in the workforce (Lengelle, Meijiers, & Hughes, 2016; Savickas, 2011), and organisational behaviour more broadly (Cornelissen, Oswick, Christensen, & Phillips, 2008; El-Sawad, 2005; Morgan, 2006). For instance, the classical developmental theory of career by Super conceptualised career as a vehicle or lifelong path. More recently, Inkson proposed nine metaphors for career, including a cycle, a resource, and a story. In communication with others, metaphors form fuzzy categorical clusters of expectations and associations accessed in culturally and socially situated contexts of discourse. Our investigation analyses online videos of Australian and Norwegian university students talking about education, career, and working life, created to promote career-related benefits of higher education. We apply the Metaphor Identification Procedure Vrije Universiteit (MIPVU) (Steen et al., 2010) to the English transcriptions and an adapted Scandinavian version of MIPVU to the Norwegian transcriptions to gain reliable, quantifiable and comparable results concerning the metaphor used by these students to discuss their careers as students and as college graduates. The aims are twofold: first, to compare the metaphors identified in these videos with those previously established by scholars of vocational psychology; and second, to perform a cross-cultural comparison between the promotional uses of metaphor in these different university contexts and languages. Furthermore, we argue that metaphors offer an interpretive repertoire to facilitate the coherent transfer of interrelated physiological, emotional, and cognitive dimensions. This work represents an innovative methodological advance for research into career and working life.
McIlveen, P. (2016). Effectiveness of career development? Ask a precise question in you want a precise answer. Keynote paper presented at the Symposium of the Career Development Association of New Zealand, Christchurch, New Zealand, 3 October.
Career development practitioners are challenged to provide evidence of the relevance of their research, expertise in delivering career guidance and developing informational resources, and effectiveness of their interventions. The paper addresses the chronic problems of unemployment, under-employment, and obstacles to job search effectiveness. These problems are contextualized in the paradigmatic Psychology of Working Framework and the empirically robust Social Cognitive Career Theory. Contemporary empirical research demonstrates that career development research and interventions offer practical directions for action by policy leaders, practitioners, and researchers.
Creed, A. (2016, August, 31 – September, 3). Metaphor analysis in the study of career and work. Paper presented at the Metaphor Festival Amsterdam 2016, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Metaphor is a contextually situated social phenomena and provides a theorising frame for career and work. Within vocational psychology literature, dominant metaphors for career and organisational behaviour have been offered to provide a conceptual framework to study people’s thoughts and actions. Although recognised in the study of career and organisational dynamics, metaphor analysis remains an underutilised research method and, arguably, the validity of established metaphors has not been established. This paper contends that transdisciplinary research of career using narrative approaches should draw on linguistics literature to perform language-in-use analysis of metaphor to facilitate an exploration of career and work. The paper offers a brief scenario entailing an analysis of metaphor in promotional resources used by a university to advocate career-related benefits of higher education. The analysis was theoretically framed by the conceptual metaphor theory of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) and used the Metaphor Identification Procedure Vrije Universiteit (MIPVU) and the University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language Semantic Annotation Software (USAS) to identify metaphoric expressions and propose metaphoric themes. Results indicate three dominant themes: CONSTRUCTION; ENCOUNTERS AND RELATIONSHIPS; and AN OBJECT. The application of a language-in-use approach to metaphor analysis supports fair cultural generalisations to predominant group tendencies in career and work. Enabling people to use conceptual metaphors to deconstruct themes and explore career narratives may open up new opportunities and prove to be transformative.
Creed, A. (2016, July, 1-4). Metaphor in wine appreciation and acculturation: A sensory and affective conduit. Paper presented at the 11th Conference of the International Association for Researching and Applying Metaphor (RaAM): Metaphor in the Arts, in Media and Communication. Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.
Metaphoric expressions are a frequent feature of the language wine professionals use to talk and teach about wine appreciation (Caballero & Suárez-Toste, 2008). This paper reports findings of the significance of metaphor in Australian wine reviews and wine education arising from two sequential qualitative studies. The aim of the first study was to identify conventional metaphoric expressions used in Australian wine reviews and their semantic and conceptual structure. The aim of the second study was to explore meaning and experiential potential of metaphoric expressions for wine educators in Australia and China. The research was theoretically framed by the conceptual metaphor theory of Lakoff and Johnson (1980). The methodology was guided by a cognitive linguistic perspective (Croft & Cruse, 2004) and used the Metaphor Identification Procedure Vrije Universiteit (Steen, Dorst, Herrmann, Kaal, Krennmayr, et al., 2010). Results from Study 1 demonstrated the significance and function of metaphoric expressions and indicated seven underlying metaphoric themes (Boers, 2000): AN OBJECT, A THREE DIMENSIONAL ARTEFACT, AN INSTITUTIONAL ARTEFACT, A TEXTILE, A LIVING ORGANISM, and A PERSON. Results from Study 2 indicated both similarity and variation in cross-cultural conceptualisation, understanding, and transfer of potentially metaphoric expressions with a reliance on situations and word associations. The findings of this research suggest that an understanding of the influence of metaphoric language requires consideration of congruency to better integrate and elicit people’s sensory and affective responses.
Creed, A. (2016, July, 20-22). Wine, genre, and metaphor: A sensory bridge for cross-cultural communication. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference in Cultural Linguistics. Monash Centre Prato, Italy.
Wine, genre, and metaphor are contextually situated in social, cultural, historical, and educational contexts of use. Wine appreciation is a social event in contrast to an observational event. It is concerned with influencing audience perceptions in contrast to a spontaneous commentary of an event. In the genre of wine reviews, metaphoric expressions are frequently used to talk about wine (Caballero & Suárez-Toste, 2008). This poster presents a cross-cultural, applied linguistic investigation of the experiential potential of metaphoric expressions identified in Australian wine reviews. It goes on to explore their interpretation and transfer to local student cohorts by wine educators in Australia and China. The research was theoretically framed by the conceptual metaphor theory of Lakoff and Johnson (1980). Metaphor identification used the Metaphor Identification Procedure Vrije Universiteit (Steen et al., 2010) and the UCREL Semantic Annotation System (Archer et al., 2004) for semantic and conceptual analysis. A comparison of wine educator responses to interpretation and transmission tasks demonstrated that anthropomorphic metaphor (i.e., WINE IS A PERSON) was conceptualized similarly by participants, more often than other metaphoric themes (i.e., AN OBJECT, A THREE DIMENSIONAL ARTEFACT, AN INSTITUTIONAL ARTEFACT, A TEXTILE, or A LIVING ORGANISM). The cultural artefact of language used in the genre of wine reviews and the metaphoric potential of linguistic choices on perceptions indicates a need for the consideration of congruency when wine communication crosses cultural and linguistic borders.
McIlveen, P. (2015). Dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, & career engagement. Keynote paper presented at the International Forum of Career Guidance & Entrepreneurship, PRC Ministry of Education and BeiSen, Beijing, China.
Creed, A. (2015, July, 5-9). Tasting and talking about wine: An institutional framework for communication. Paper presented at 2015 ICAS Adelaide, Australia.
Creed, A. (2015, July 9). Tasting and talking about wine through metaphor. Paper presented at 2015 Interculture Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
When peoples taste wine they are responding to a multisensory stimulus. When reading a wine review, sensory reactions are motivated by the written word engaging the reader in a subjective and multimodal simulation. Wine is a product with rich histories and cultures, a language domain, and an institutional framework writ large in the genre of wine reviews. Wine reviews—also known as tasting notes—are a heuristic resource and form an integral part of the wine appraisal process and wine acculturation. They are the communicative bridge between wine expert and consumer. The discourse domain and textual conventions of wine reviews frame how people taste, talk, teach, and learn about wine. Furthermore, current literature shows that metaphoric expressions are a significant feature of the genre. However, most metaphor studies have focused on metaphoric language in isolation, usually in artificially created contexts, and engaging idealised cases (Gibbs & Colson, 2012). When researching natural language in use, it is important to recognise that situation availability plays a significant role in facilitating understanding of abstract concepts involving sensory perceptions particularly in cross-cultural communication. This presentation is used to consider the idea of interculturality in terms of the adaptivity of the genre and language used in wine appreciation to the cross cultural and linguistic borders of Australia and China. I will present initial findings from a research project of Australian wine reviews to discuss how metaphoric language shapes how people—wine educators—understand and experience Australian wine reviews.